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Volcano Eruption

What Is A Volcanic Eruption?

 

A volcanic eruption is one of the most dangerous and magnificent natural disasters.  When a volcano erupts, the volcano sends out ash clouds, lava and even volcanic bombs.  There is a high risk of danger from slow moving lava; though, the lava might move slowly, it is very dangerous and can cause a lot of damage to property and human life.

Volcanic eruptions comprise of 3 stages:

  • Magmatic eruptions – when gas is released under decompression.
  • Phreatomagmatic eruptions – when a thermal contraction comes from water.
  • Phreatic eruptions – when steam erupts.

The Magnitude of Volcanoes

When there is an earthquake, little vents are created in which magma is allowed to form.  This is pushed up through these vents and towards the crust of the volcano.  Steam vents are created when the magma reaches a certain level and reaches a boiling point which begins the eruption.  The eruption might result in a total eruption.  This is when gas driven explosion send magma to the volcano’s crust creating lava outpouring from the volcano.

Some eruptions are not as strong as others.  All volcanic eruptions can vary in strength; with some not reaching any civilians or causing too much damage.  However, others can spread over a vast area, sometimes reaching several miles from the volcano.  Some eruptions do not always contain lava flow or lava fountains which aren’t always very dangerous.  However, some eruptions can be on a huge scale, very violent and very, very dangerous with explosions heard from the volcano.

Some eruptions can be passive and not very dangerous however; some are explosive and can be very and high dangerous.  Some volcanoes do not just erupt from their peeks, some can have eruptions at any part of the mountain, it’s not just the peeks that are the most deadly for volcano eruptions.  One of the biggest and well known eruptions was in Pompeii.

The entire city of Pompeii was buried when the volcano at Pompeii erupted.  However, this is only one example of a type of eruption; another type of eruption is in Norway, a volcano that had been dormant for years suddenly became active, however, the local towns were evacuated and the volcano erupted. However, there was no great scale eruption.  Lava flowed but didn’t reach the town, this was a very small eruption compared to many others.

When Can An Eruption Happen?

Volcanic eruptions happen deep down inside the earth.  When the earth’s tectonic plate’s shift, it causes more than just earthquakes, it can create new volcanoes or vents.  Underneath the surface of the earth, debris, gases from the planet and molten rock are stored creating new formations of vents and volcanoes.

As soon as the magma thickens and builds up with the gases of planet can create explosions and cause lava to flow upwards and have ash released into the air causing thick clouds of smoke often seen overhead volcanoes. If there is an increased magma but a decrease of planet gases, then the eruption will not be as great.

However, lava can reach an amazing heat possibly even 2000 degrees Fahrenheit; sometimes it can be even higher than that.  Lava can actually destroy everything in its path, even an entire village.  There can be huge rocks or even boulder types reigning down from the volcano and onto populated areas.  There can also be toxic gases and ash which causes severe lung problems to many vulnerable people including children and elderly people.

Volcano eruptions can happen at any given time.  If there is a change to the tectonic plates in which a volcano sits on, then it can erupt at any given time.  There is no set time as to when they will erupt or how much damage they’ll cause.

Volcano eruption facts
Anak Krakatau Volcano erupting

Understanding the Volcanoes

When there is a volcanic eruption, there could be many other dangers which occur.  These things can be such as flash floods, mudflows, landslides and rock falls, and even earthquakes. However, there can also be things such as fire and acid rain that follows a volcano erupting.  It might not seem as though there are many active volcanoes erupting but there is a great deal of active volcanoes and the fact that they haven’t erupted doesn’t mean it will always be like this.  There are dangers every day from active volcanoes.

What Can You Do Before A Volcanic Eruption?

There are steps which anyone can take before a volcano erupts and they are very simple steps.  These small but simple steps can help protect homes, and protect your families also in the event of a volcanic eruption.  If you live in an area which has an active volcano, even if it might be up to 100 miles away, there is still a risk because a volcano can erupt at any time.

  • Have An Emergency Supply Kit

This can be a small but important kit of some of the simplest items such as water, and non perishable foods.  You should look to add batteries, radios, battery powered or hand cranked radios.  You can also have torches or flashlights just in case of a power cut or blackout; and have a first aid kit should anyone get hurt.

All of these supplies should be kept in a location which is easy to reach such as a car just in case you need to be evacuated or are being told to do so.  If possible, try to add breathing masks or goggles to see through thick ash clouds.

  • Emergency Plan

A disaster such as a volcano erupting can happen at any given time and it does mean your family mightn’t be at home when it happens.  This is why you do need to think about getting in contact with other family members and meeting up again.  You need to think carefully about all eventualities and have a good plan to get the family reunited once again.

These are simple plans but if you do live in an area very close to an active volcano, they could end up saving your life and your family’s.

You might not realize or understand that a volcano is active or is about to erupt either, however, when a volcanic eruption occurs, you have to be vigilant.  You have to be aware of what could happen and how a volcano works.

The World’s Natural Disaster

When an eruption occurs, lava can spill over and can absolutely cause mass devastation.  Even if the volcano isn’t moving fast towards the local town or village, there are still many dangers that can cause harm.  The ash clouds can be very dangerous to a person, as is the poison gases and flying debris and rocks.  There are many dangers to volcanic eruptions, though this is a natural disaster that cannot be tamed or predicted.

It might sound as though volcanoes aren’t that dangerous if they haven’t been active for years but they’re still dangerous.  They have intense heat from lava flows and of course the acid rain can all become dangerous.

 

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Classification Of Volcanoes

 

When studying the volcanoes in the world it is important to understand what the classification of volcanoes is and how it works. There are several factors that go into account when attempting to classify a volcano into a group and that includes things like recent activity, periodicity of eruptions, size, potential impact and others. Though it is not common to hear it volcano eruptions are actually not that rare. More often than not the classification of volcanoes refers to the life cycle and that could define them as active, extinct or dormant. However, a volcano can also be classified by the composition of the structure and that would mean that it can be a shield, conical or stratovolcano. Finally they can also be classified because of its eruption which could be quiet or explosive.

Active Volcanoes

A volcano will be classified as an active volcano if at the present time it is expected to erupt or is erupting already. One of the best examples of this classification of volcanoes would be Kilauea which has been erupting since 1983. There are a total of close to 1,500 of such volcanoes on the planet. Every year somewhere between 50 and 70 volcanoes will erupt.

Dormant Volcanoes

The classification of volcanoes which is called dormant would be a volcano that is not erupting or predicted to erupt in the near future. However, it has done so in recordable history. A dormant volcano is also expected to have an eruption sometime in the future. Sometimes the difference between a dormant volcano and an active volcano can be pretty small. That is because even though a volcano can be dormant for hundreds of years it is still expected to have an eruption in the future.

Mauna Kea is a volcano which is located on Big Island and its last eruption took place 3,500-4,000 years ago. However scientists believe that it will erupt again. What makes that volcano dormant is that currently there is no prediction as to when that eruption could take place. A dormant volcano could be very dangerous because people in the surrounding areas are usually not prepared and complacent leaving close to the mountain. Before its eruption in 1980, Mount St. Helens was dormant.

Extinct Volcanoes

An extinct volcano is a volcano that no one expects will ever have another eruption. One such volcano is also located on Hawaii’s Big Island and its name is Kohala. The last time that Kohala erupted was close to 60,000 years ago. As of now scientists do not believe that volcano will ever be active again. Keep in mind that this classification of volcanoes that are extinct is not necessarily definitive as some have gone through what is called rejuvenation.

Type Classifications

Classification of volcanoes can also be done because of the type of composition and structure of the volcano. A shield volcano is dome shaped and low. These volcanoes are mountains that have been shaped by the flows and can cover larger areas. The simplest form of volcanoes would be the cinder cone type. These volcanoes have erupted from one single vent and a bowl shaped crater will be found in the summit. The most common type of volcano is the strato or composite. These are tall mountains that have steep sides and which have alternated magma and layers of rock.

Eruption Classification

There are two types of classification of volcanoes based on eruption and these are central or explosive and fissure or quiet. An explosive eruption happens because of a buildup of gas under very viscous slow flowing and thick magma. These types of eruption are very violent and rapid; more often they will spew volcanic material, lava and ash onto a large area. A fissure or a quiet eruption will emit a lot of lava from a fracture or fissure. Because lava would usually have a low viscosity, the gas can easily escape.

Samples Of Volcanoes

There are several places in the world which can demonstrate the classification of volcanoes but most active volcanoes will be found in the Pacific Ring of Fire. There are, however, volcanoes not located in the Pacific which are active; some of them include Etna and Vesuvius, Mount Pinatubo and Stromboli.

Classification of volcanoes that are dormant will include a lot of the volcanoes still found in the Ring of Fire and other places nearby. One example would be Mount St. Helens previous to its 1980 eruption. Before a dormant volcano is about to erupt it is usually proceeded by small tremors and earthquakes.

Finally when you are looking at extinct volcanoes you can look at the ones in the Eiffel district in West Germany as well as several volcanoes in USA. There are two volcanoes in Northern Ireland which are also extinct volcanoes and those are Skye and Mull.

 

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Famous Volcanoes

 

Volcanoes are one of the most awesome natural events that the world can ever see, and they are also among the most dangerous. Currently there are approximately 1500 active volcanoes in the world but an active volcano can be described as one that has had an eruption at least within the last ten thousand years. There are many volcanoes that have been dormant for a lot longer than that and yet they could be some of the most dangerous if they were ever to explode. There are volcanoes in most of the world and some you would not be able to see even if you were standing on them even though they are some of the most famous volcanoes. Some areas are more active than others, but the most famous one is the Pacific Ring of Fire.

The Ring Of Fire

The Pacific Ring of Fire is the area in the Pacific Ocean, which has the most active volcanoes in the world. By the latest calculations over 75% of the active volcanoes in the world are located here. Because of that, you will find some of the world’s most famous volcanoes in that area. The area extends from the Chilean coast in South America to Alaska, to the East Coast of the Asian continent, down to Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. There are a total of 452 known volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire which is also known for the severity of its earthquakes.

Most Famous Volcanoes In The Ring Of Fire

Because of the amount of volcano activity in the Ring of Fire, some of the world’s most famous volcanoes can be found here. Some of the names you may recognize right away are Mount Saint Helens in Washington State, Kilauea in Hawaii, Mount Yasur in Vanuatu, Santa Maria in Guatemala, and Sangay in Ecuador all of which are still very much active. Another couple of recognizable names in the Ring of Fire are Mount Fuji in Japan, and Mauna Loa in Hawaii.

World’s Most Active Volcanoes

One thing that is important to note is that most of the famous volcanoes are also the most active in the world. Kilauea in Japan is one of the world’s most active volcano at the moment with its last spew of lava happened in 2011. The Nyamuragira volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo is the most active volcano in Africa and it has erupted at the very least 34 times since 1882. Mount Etna, which was believed by ancient Romans to be the home of the god of fire Vulcan has a continuous history of eruptions that dates back over 3500 years. Piton de la Fournaise or Le Volcan as it is known to locals at Reunion Island has seen over 150 eruptions since the records show it in the 17th century.

What Happens When A Volcano Erupts

To understand famous volcanoes and even volcanoes in general it is important to understand eruptions. Before an eruption takes place there is a lot of commotion beneath the surface which involves melted rock. The substance that is created during that commotion is what is later spilled while the eruption takes place. The name of the molten lava that will flow down the side of a volcano is what is known as magma, but before the magma is expelled out it needs to rise and that is created by disturbances of low and high pressures.

The eruption does not have to be the big explosion that people associate with famous volcanoes. There are mild eruptions, which only cause steam blasts. Others are still considered mild but will have lava run down de side of the volcano and ejected ash or rock fragments. There are however more dangerous and stronger eruptions which can cause a lot of damage to the surrounding area. A Vulcanian explosion will contain solidified rock, which will produce a pyroclastic flow.

Volcanoes With The Potential Of Being The Deadliest

Some of the world’s most famous volcanoes have destroyed entire cities and killed everyone in the nearby area. Mount Vesuvius for example destroyed the entire city of Pompey and archeological records show the devastation it caused. There are some volcanoes that could cause the same type of damage to cities today with the difference that the population around those volcanoes is even larger than that of ancient Pompeii.

The city of Kagoshima in Japan has 680,000 people and the Sakurajima volcano located nearby has been experiencing small explosions since 1955. Catania near Mount Etna has 300,000 people in the area, which has seen the dangers of Mount Etna when an eruption destroyed some of its structures in the 1600’s. The 450,000 people in Pasto Colombia have been on guard due to the Galeras Volcano nearby. In 2005 then were forced to wear goggles and facemasks because of an explosion. Seattle’s population of 608,000 live in that shadows of Mount Rainier and though the volcano is quiet for now, its past history is anything but. Finally, close to a million people live in Naples, Italy. Their biggest and scariest neighbor is Mount Vesuvius, which has destroyed an entire city and the surrounding areas in the past. These are just some of the famous volcanoes near people, but there are a lot more.

Super Volcanoes

If the most famous volcanoes listed before were to erupt, they could cause a lot of destruction, but that destruction would be nowhere near to what would happen if a super volcano were to erupt. There are several of these volcanoes and they have caused severe destruction in the past. Their eruptions are measured using the Volcano Eruption index or VEI. The most severe eruptions are those that reach the VEI8 classification and there have been 10 of those eruptions in recorded history, 5 of which were in the US.

What Would Happen If A Super Volcano Erupted Today?

If a super volcano like the one found at Yellowstone Park in the US were to erupt today it would instantly be a famous volcano, but there would not be as many people to tell the story. The last time that the Yellowstone volcano erupted was 640,000 years ago and it is believed that it was the main cause of the latest ice age. If an eruption of that magnitude were to happen today the people nearby would stand no chance as they would be hit by 500 degree lava. Even if the lava does not reach you the ash would and that would cause you to choke to death as you inhale it.

People in other parts of the world would not get away unharmed because the global temperatures would drop by a minimum of 21 degrees. That would cause plant life and animal life to die off, leaving the people in the rest of the world without food and very cold. In other words, the great majority of people would starve.

The problem is that some scientists believe that the volcano at Yellowstone Park erupts once every 600,000 years, and if that is the case then we are overdue. No one knows when one of these famous volcanoes will erupt, but when they do it will be a spectacle that could end life as we know it.

 

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Magma

 

Magma is a molten and liquid rock that is only found below the earth’s surface. That is because once it reaches the surface it becomes lava. This substance is made up of a combination of dissolved gases, rock fragments and crystals and the liquid part of it is referred to as the melt. Because of its creation due to high pressure and temperatures, this is an extremely hot substance, ranging from 1,292 to 2,372 degrees Fahrenheit. Frequently you will find this substance pooling in magma chambers which can feed volcanoes. It can also intrude into nearby rocks, rise to the surface in the form of lava or become an explosive ejection of tephra.

How It Forms

Magma forms in either the lower portion of Earth’s crust or the upper part of its mantle. It is produced when high amounts of pressure combine with high temperatures, causing some of the rocks in the area to melt, creating this substance. Without this combination of pressure and heat, this substance would not be able to form.

Magma Chambers

This substance is most frequently found in magma chambers under the surface of the earth. These are basically underground pools of this liquid rock. In order to maintain its form, the liquid in these chambers must be exposed to constant high temperatures in addition to a great deal of pressure. Because of this, the high pressure can eventually create a fracture in the surrounding rock, allowing the liquid to escape to the surface at which point it becomes lava.

Basalt

Magma comes in three major types, all of which have different properties and are more common with different types of volcanoes and eruptions. The first type of this liquid is basalt and it is very low in silica and has a very low gas content as well. In addition, this liquid has a low viscosity, meaning that it appears thicker. This type of liquid rock is formed at a much higher temperature than the other two varieties, at around 1,200 degrees Celsius. It is more common in volcanic fields than other types of volcanoes and is usually present in flowing eruptions that produce thin lava flows that form shields.

Andesite

Andesite magma occurs at a slightly lower temperature than basalt, ranging from 800 to 1,000 degrees Celsius. It also has a slightly higher content of silica and gas and is moderately viscous compared to the low viscosity of basalt liquid rock. Andesite is most common in stratovolcanoes and will usually produce moderately explosive eruptions that include a liquid flow as well. These eruptions will generally create thick lava flows that are full of rubble.

Rhyolite

The third type of magma is rhyolite and it occurs at the lowest temperature possible for this substance, ranging from 750 to 850 degrees Celsius. It is the complete opposite of the basalt version as it is rich in silica and has high gas content. In addition, it has a high viscosity. This type of liquid is most commonly related to caldera volcanoes that are distinguished by very explosive eruptions. These eruptions will usually produce pumice, ash fall and pyroclastic flows. In cases in which this substance has lower gas content than normal, the lava will begin to flow.

Magma Eruptions

Volcanic eruptions frequently occur because of the accumulation of magma within which then erupts. Usually these eruptions occur because of high pressure stemming from the dissolved gases within the liquid rock. The gases usually remain dissolved because the pressure of the rocks confining the substance is larger than that of the gas’s vapor pressure. If this balance shifts, however, the result is many tiny gas bubbles filling the substance and trying to escape. Once the pressure becomes too great, the eruption occurs.

 

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Shield Volcano Facts

 

A shield volcano resembles the appearance of a Hawaiian warrior’s shield in that they have a low-angle profile. In almost all cases the comparison to a shield is done because the width of these volcanoes is typically around 20 times the size of their height. Despite this, they can vary greatly in terms of size with some having small diameters of a few kilometers while others can be over 95 kilometers. Some located in Hawaii reaching an altitude of 8,000 meters above the sea floor, which is 12,000 meters above their base. In fact, some of the largest volcanoes you will find on the planet are actually shield volcanoes, with Mauna Loa, located on Big Island in Hawaii, being the largest of this type.

Formation

A shield volcano is most likely to form during a lava flow of fluid basaltic material, usually those that flow down from either a flank fissure system or the summit itself. The most common type of shield volcano is those that form during one long-term eruption. Some shield volcanoes, however, are pyroclastic shields meaning that their low-angle slopes have been formed from the accumulation of fragmented material over the course of several eruptions.

Because of the variety of formation, you will see slightly different shapes in the various shield volcanoes around the world. The ones in Iceland, for example, are generally much smaller in size and almost perfectly symmetrical while those found in Hawaii are much larger (think of Mauna Loa) and elongated. The shields found on the Galapagos Islands are different from both of these, having flat tops, steep middle slopes and deep calderas at the summit. These differences not only show variations in formation but also in the eruption types generally found in the region.

Eruptions

Although the type of eruptions found in a shield volcano can vary slightly, most experience Hawaiian eruptions. These eruptions will usually have ground flows of lava that is capable of traveling great distances. Because the flows travel a longer distance, the individual sheets of lava are generally thinner. These longer lava flows from the eruptions are what gives the shied volcano their distinctive shape.

Hawaiian Volcanoes

Hawaii is home to a great deal of the planet’s shield volcanoes as the Pacific Plate and the Hawaii hotspot have combined to form a large chain of various volcanoes of all types. This chain includes more than 43 major volcanoes, including Mauna Loa. As mentioned earlier, Mauna Loa is the largest shield volcano. It is also Hawaii’s highest volcano, reaching 4,170 meters above sea level in addition to traveling 13 kilometers down below the waterline. This volcano has most likely been eruption for over 700,000 years and the most recent eruption took place in 1984.

Mauna Kea is another shield volcano found in Hawaii and it has an altitude 4,205 meters above sea level and from its base below sea level it is 10,200 meters. This means that although Mauna Kea has a higher elevation than Mauna Loa, its total height is smaller. Mauna Kea is probably around a million years old, attributing to its steeper and smoother profile. Despite this, this shield volcano has experienced several explosive eruptions late in its life which created several cinder cones on its summit.

Another one of Hawaii’s shield volcanoes is Kilauea which is in fact the most active of the island’s volcanoes. This volcano is only between 300,000 and 600,000 years old, making it one of the youngest in the area. At first scientists actually thought Kilauea was part of Mauna Loa; however they have since discovered that it acts independently. Interestingly enough, Kilauea’s current eruption began on January 3, 1983, meaning it has been going on for 30 years to date.

Iceland

Another place that you can find multiple shield volcanoes is in Iceland. The shield volcanoes found there usually range from 5,000 to 10,000 years old. These volcanoes are also usually smaller than those in other locations and are generally symmetrical and their eruptions usually occur from their summit calderas.

Galapagos Volcanoes

Another area with a great deal of shield volcanoes is the Galapagos Islands, with the volcanoes ranging from 700,000 to 4.2 million years old. Several of the islands are in fact shield volcanoes, such as Fernandina. This shield volcano has steep upper flanks but low-angle lower flanks. It has been currently erupting since April of 2009.

In terms of composition, the lava flows found in the Galapagos Islands are very similar to those in Hawaii although unlike other sets of volcanoes formed by one hotspot, they do not create a line.

Other Volcanoes

In the Auckland volcanic field in New Zealand you can find Rangitoto which actually forms its own island with a width of 5.5 kilometers. This volcano erupted around 550 years ago. In the United States, you can find the Belknap volcano in the Cascade Range in Oregon in addition to the Newberry volcano which takes up around 1600 square kilometers of land.

 

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Photo taken by: United States Geological Survey

Kilauea Volcano Facts

 

The Kilauea Volcano is the youngest volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island. Because when viewed from above it seems tiny in comparison to the neighboring volcano Mauna Loa, Kilauea was originally believed to simply be a satellite of Mauna Loa instead of a distinct volcano. Research that has taken place during the last decades, however, shows that not only is Kilauea a separate volcano, but its magna-plumbing system actually goes over 60 kilometers deep into the earth. The Kilauea Volcano sits on a curved line made up of other volcanoes such as Kohala and Mauna Kea.

Description

The highest point on the Kilauea Volcano is slightly less than 4,200 feet. In addition, it has a large caldera at the summit that is 3 kilometers by 5 kilometers wide at the main depression but is 6 kilometers by 6 kilometers at the outermost faults and goes down 165 meters deep. The entire area of the volcano is 552 square meters. The oldest rocks found on the volcano date back 23,000 years and scientists estimate that the first eruption occurred between 300,000 and 600,000 years ago. Despite this, about 90% of the basaltic shield volcano found on the surface is made from lava flows that occurred less than 1000 years ago while 70% of the actual volcano’s surface is 600 years old or younger. The volcano gets its name, Kilauea, from the Hawaiian word meaning much spreading or spewing, referencing the frequent lava flows.

Nearby Wildlife

Because of the constant activity of the Kilauea Volcano, there are semi-frequent acid rains in the nearby Ka’u Desert, a barren region to the south of the volcano’s southwestern rift zone. Despite this, wildlife still manages to flourish in several nearby areas, especially those that are more or less undisturbed by the volcanic activity. In the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, which contains most of Kilauea’s southern ecosystem, you will find a wide range of bird species in addition to several endangered species of sea turtles.

Eruption History

In addition to being the youngest volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island, the Kilauea Volcano is actually the most active of the state’s volcanoes in recent years; in fact it is one of the most active volcanoes on the entire planet. The volcano has been present in many Polynesian legends and it has been almost constantly active since the first recorded eruption which occurred around the year 1750. Most of the volcanic activity at Kilauea between 1750 and 1924 was smaller and originated in the lava lake found at the summit. In 1924, however, the volcano had an explosive eruption and from then to 1955 there was a period of short eruptions.

Current Eruption

Impressively enough, the current eruption of the Kilauea Volcano, named Pu’u O’o started 30 years ago! It began on January 3, 1983 at which point ground fissures opened and thin streams of molten lava appeared from a 7 kilometer long fissure. Throughout the course of the current eruption, the main exit point of the lava has shifted several times. It spent the first 3.5 years erupting from a central vent but in July of 1986, it suddenly moved down the rift 3 kilometers to the Kupaianaha shield, where it stayed until early 1992. When the eruption point changed, so did the style, shifting from high fountaining occurring in episodes to a continuous but quiet effusion in a lava pond.

In November of 1986, lava from this eruption point met the ocean at a point 12 kilometers away and covered Kapa’ahu along the way. The most destructive phase of the Kilauea Volcano’s current eruption began in 1990 when its lava flows flooded Kalapana, a nearby village where it destroyed more than 100 homes in just 9 months. The lava flow declined throughout 1991 but in 1992, eruptions began once again. Now lava flows usually come through the lava tubes and go into the ocean and there are few surface flows.

Throughout the current eruption, lava flows have varied greatly, ranging from 300,000 to 600,000 cubic meters each day and there were actually 24 days during early 1997 in which there was no eruptive activity.

Research And Preservation

At the rim of the Kilauea Volcano you will find the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, which was founded in 1912 by Thomas Jagger and this is where most of the research on the volcano takes place. In addition, the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park was created in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson. This began the area’s path towards becoming a World Heritage Site.

Tourism

The first hotels appeared around the rim of the Kilauea Volcano in the 1840s. After the area became a National Park in 1916, tourism continued to increase greatly. Today around 2.6 million tourists visit the volcano and surrounding areas each year, mostly due to its location in beautiful Hawaii combined with its active yet docile nature.

Location

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