The ocean is also part of the Earth’s surface, and just as there are volcanoes, mountains, plains and other visible formations on land, the same exist underwater although not everything in the ocean is completely mapped.

Features of the Ocean Floor.

The terrain or land relief is the accumulation of forms that exist on the surface of the Earth. Thanks to advances in technology, scientists have found an elaborate network of formations such as mountain ranges, canyons, mountains, hills, trenches, and others underwater that can rival in size and beauty with those seen on land.

The seabed has different geologic formations that lie on the ocean floor, which is structured as follows:

Continental shelf.

The continental shelf is the area near the continents’ land, generally corresponding to the part where beach-goers swim. It is part of the mainland, and it lies between the Coast and the point where the water has a depth of 100 to 200 meters.

Continental margin.

The continental margin is an area that starts from the edge of the continental shelf and descends steeply to a depth of 2,000 meters or more. It connects the continental shelf and oceanic floor.

Abyssal Plain.

The abyssal plain is the flat area of the seabed, with a typical depth of 3,000-6,000 meters. Often it is located between the continental margin and the oceanic trenches. Its average depth is 4,000 meters and is almost entirely horizontal.

The ocean floor is covered with a sediment result of thousands of years of decomposition of plants and animals and also the fall of volcanic ash and other materials from the earth.

Seabed structure

Seabed structure

What kind of shapes exists on the seafloor?

Ocean Trenches.

They are long and narrow depressions in the seabed; in fact, these are the deepest underwater areas, ranging from 3 to 4 kilometers below the floor.

Oceanic Plateaus.

These are relatively flat regions that rise above the seabed, at least about 200 meters.


These are like the mountains on the land, but their highest point does not reach the ocean surface. They are mainly formed by volcanic activity and can rise to hundreds or thousands of meters above the seabed. A curious fact is that if you take into account the height of a mountain from its base, the dormant volcano Mauna Kea is the highest mountain in the world, and not Mount Everest.

Oceanic Mountain ranges.
Mountain systems characterized by the succession of mountains connected with each other.

Ocean ridges.

Mountain ranges that traverse more or less centrally abyssal plains and found in all ocean basins.

Ocean ridges.

Submarine canyons or valleys.
Steep slumps on the continental slope that usually carry sediment, nutrients and other substances from the land to the ocean floor.

Hydrothermal vents.
Hot springs, rich in minerals and chemicals that release hot water into the cold waters of the sea. Hydrothermal vents have hot and poisonous surroundings, but a few organisms like certain worms and mussels have adapted to live there.

Seamount whose top is flat, most common in the Pacific Ocean than in other oceans.

Abyssal hills.

Small elevations of the seafloor from an abyssal plain. They do not reach the significant heights of the mountains, but are common and constitute 30 percent of the seabed.


Quick Facts

– The Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the ocean.
– Ocean ridges are the places where most volcanic activity occurs on planet Earth.
– The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is the world’s longest mountain range.

Acadia National Park

A Peaceful Paradise

In the American State of Maine, located near the State of New York; is the location of the Acadia National Park. The biggest island is that of Mount Desert Island but there are also a lot of smaller islands in the park. This just sits off the Atlantic coast; however Acadia wasn’t always the name of the park. It was firstly known as the Lafayette National Park back in 1919. It was the oldest park to the east of the Mississippi river; and the park was eventually renamed to the Acadia a decade later in 1929.

However, years ago, Acadia was inhabited by humans. It was John Rockefeller Jr who designed, directed and even financed the work of the carriage trail through the park. He was the man to put up the money to help create the trails so that anyone could enjoy a tour through the park. Rockefeller created the 17 granite bridges, as well as the trails and the two gate lodges – they are all in use today and have been highly maintained also.

The Fire Of 1947

In 1947, on the 17th of October, almost 10,000 acres across the park was destroyed by a huge fire that erupted. The fire started at the Crooked Road which is only a few miles away from Hulls Cove. This was a huge forest fire that was started because of the dry weather the area had and it continued all the way through until November, the 14th of the month to be exact. During this time however, the Navy, Army, Coast Guard and local residents were all on hand to help control the blaze; though the National Park Service also helped to control the blaze.

After the fire, there was a huge restoration program set up. Mostly the Rockefeller family helped the restoration program; but most of the regrowth program was natural. Some say that the fire helped to add beauty to the park. However, the fire did help to bring diversity to the population of trees because more were grown since the fire.

Throughout the years however, there have been many different groups of people who wish to restore some of the parts of the park which need care and attention. The Friends of Acadia program was launched in 1986 and this helped to restore the road system throughout the park. Of course many visitors come here every year so good roads and safety are vital.

Acadia National Park
Bass Harbor Lighthouse, Acadia National Park.

The Terrain of Acadia National Park

The terrains in the national park include things such as oceanic shorelines, lakes, wood lands and mountain ranges. Mount Desert Island isn’t the only island in the park as there is also the Baker Island. There is the Isle au Haut and the Schoodic Peninsula which is located on the mainland of the park. There is almost 47000 acres across the park and the Mount Desert Island is where a large part of the land is found – almost 30,300 acres.

Though, the Cadillac Mountain range is certainly going to be one of the more popular spots of the park. The mountain was named after the explorer Cadillac; and the mountain can be found on the east part of Mount Desert Island. Though a lot of the roads were built; and the mountains throughout Acadia National Park give the chance for those who love to ride a bike or hike, to be able to enjoy the scenery also. There are some spectacular views of the many island lakes, the pine forests and of course the ocean. There are almost two million visitors that come to the park yearly.

Acadia National Park does have many different species of wild life including;

-The bobcat

-Black bears

-Red squirrels

-Grey squirrels

-The white tailed deer


-The beavers



-The coyote

-The porcupine


There are however a lot of different types of specify out there also and numerous marine life also.

The explorations and excavations of the Mount Desert Island have shown remains of some native mammals. Things such as the bones of;

-The Elk

-The Grey Seal

-The Indian Dog

-The Wolf


-The Beaver

-Sea Mink Which Are Extinct




However, beavers were introduced back into the island in 1920. There were two pairs of beavers released back onto the island and have since repopulated the island. Though, in 1947, there was a large fire which destroyed almost half of all of the trees on the island. This did make way for trees such as birch, aspen, maple, alder and a lot of other deciduous trees in the area. This really helped the beaver population to build and become stronger.

Acadia National park information
Acadia National Park Landscape

There were once the grey wolf and the puma or mountain lion as it is also known as, found in the park. However, it is thought that these animals have been forced out of the park because of the fact that smaller animals or prey in the park has decreased. It is also thought that human activity near the park may have caused the decrease with the mountain lion and grey wolf.

There are many different parts of the Acadia National Park to visit including;

-The Eagle Lake

-Schooner Head

-The Bear Brook Picnic Area

-The Schoodic Peninsula

-Visitors Can Sail Along The Coastline

-View The Amazing Cadillac Mountain

-Visit Jordan Pond

-Visit The Beautiful Thunder Hole

-Enjoy The Sand Beach

-Climbing To The Summit Of Mount Penobscot

There are so many different attractions to visit while in the park and no matter what sort of day it is, there is going to be something for everyone. This is why the Acadia National Park is a popular choice for many and why more and more visitors flock to the park every year. It is truly a lovely and beautiful area to visit.