A solar eclipse is a phenomenon caused by the interposition of the Moon between the Sun and the Earth, dimming the sun light either entirely or partially.

Eclipses are more common than you might think, but at a particular site on Earth, you can see a total solar eclipse only once every 360 years.

Why does a solar eclipse occur?

As you know, the moon, Earth and other planets and satellites spin around their axis and at the same time orbit around the Sun. The duration of the orbits varies according to the distance from the sun, so at different times of the year, the planets are in different positions.

Solar eclipses occur only if the moon is in the new moon phase.
When the moon is in the new moon phase, it is orbiting very close to the Sun from a perspective seen from Earth, and that is when a solar eclipse can happen. Strictly speaking, solar eclipses occur only if the moon is in the new moon phase, but this obviously does not mean that they can happen every month. Sun and moon eclipses would occur every month only if the moon rotated in the same plane in which the Earth does around the Sun, called the ecliptic plane.

Another important issue is that the moon is at a distance from earth that is similar in size to the sun, so it can perfectly cover the sun when it passes in front of it in the case of total eclipses.

Each year there are between 2 and five eclipses, and every 100 years occur about 240.

Characteristics of a solar eclipse

On average, a total solar eclipse occurs every 18 months and lasts no more than a few seconds or minutes. Each year there are between 2 and five eclipses, and every 100 years occur about 240. However, there are no more than two total eclipses every year.

In a solar eclipse, the umbra is the shadow projected on the Earth and produced by the moon when it completely blocks the light from the Sun; therefore the people on such area see a total eclipse. In contrast, a softer shadow product of a partially covered sun is the penumbra; evidently, people that experience the penumbra see a partial eclipse.

What are the types of solar eclipses?

There are four types:

Total eclipse.
It is only visible from a small area of ​​the Earth where the moon completely covers the Sun. People in the center of the moon’s shadow are the ones who can see a total solar eclipse since the umbra passes in that area of ​​the earth’s surface.

During this type of eclipse, you can observe the chromosphere, which is the outermost zone of the Sun, along with the solar corona and other protrusions.

Annular eclipse.
This kind of phenomenon happens when it is only possible to observe a small section of light in the form of a ring from the disk of the Sun since the Sun and the Moon are aligned, but the size of the latter is smaller than the apparent dimension of the Sun seen from the Earth.

types of solar eclipses.

Partial eclipse.
In this type of eclipse, only a part of the Sun’s disk is visible, so the crown and the chromosphere can not be seen. The shadow of the Moon passes through an area of ​​the earth’s surface, and it is called the penumbra; therefore, a person located in this area observes a partial eclipse.

Hybrid eclipse.
A hybrid eclipse is the fourth type, but it is very unusual. It happens when the eclipse is total in some regions of the terrestrial surface, while in others it is seen like annular eclipse.

IMPORTANT! You should not observe the solar eclipse directly with your eyes; A special filter must be used to protect your eyes. Otherwise, you risk damaging your retina irreversible to the point of losing your sight.

Eclipses in culture

Despite not affecting humans, solar eclipses were associated with bad omens and mythological events by some ancient cultures. For example, the Vikings believed that during eclipses wolves pursued the sun or the moon and managed to catch them. This belief of beings who ate the sun or the moon was common in many ancient cultures so that people used to bang objects hard enough to make a sharp noise that would frighten the evil creature.

One of the myths that still survive in some parts of the world is that these eclipses can be dangerous for pregnant women and their unborn children, but this belief has no scientific basis. However, it is important to remark that you should not watch the solar eclipse directly with your eyes without a proper filter to avoid eye damage.

Ocean, the source of life.

The Ocean is an immense body of water that covers more than 70 percent of planet Earth, and it is possibly the home of the first living organisms. The ocean is a unique, full of natural resources, resplendent beauty, strange and ordinary life, and valuable resources.

Ocean is the name given to a body of saline water larger in size than a sea. The world’s ocean contains about 1.35 billion cubic kilometers of water and represents about 97 percent of all the water on Earth, although more than 95 percent of what exists underwater is still unexplored and a mystery to us.

Arctic ocean
Pacific ocean
Atlantic ocean
Indian ocean
Antarctic ocean

For research, study, and investigation, the ocean is split into five parts that most people know: the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the Antarctic Ocean. Historically, the first four have been mapped and recognized by most countries, but now the Antarctic is gaining more international recognition. The Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans are called “the three great oceans” and their navigation and exploration date back to the early civilizations.

Characteristics of the oceans.

After Earth’s formation, around 4.5-4.6 billion years ago, lighter rocks rose to form Earth’s crust while heavier ones sank and settled to form the mantle and core of the planet. While the molten rock cooled, the water vapor inside was expelled along with other gasses; at some point, the steam condensed and formed an ocean, which over the years became the one that touches the shores today.

Although there are many theories about the beginning of life, most scientists agree that the ocean hosted the initial forms of life, which were the ancestors of all life that now exist, including humans. One of the most considered hypotheses indicates that living organisms originated near a hydrothermal vent in the ocean, given the chemical and energy characteristics that exist there. Many marine species are considered primitive or “living fossils” because they have not evolved much over thousands or millions of years and greatly resemble species that lived in ancient times.

Ocean resources.

Even today there may be species with ancient origins. Marine life is vast, diverse, and surprising. Many biologists believe that between 500 thousand to five million marine species are not discovered yet, and less than five percent of the ocean has been explored.

Each ocean has own temperatures, salinity, and specific natural resources, but all of them have seamounts, ridges, animal and plant species, minerals, and other resources. The ocean is home to the largest animals in the world, like the blue whale, and tiny creatures like plankton and krill. Fish exist in vast quantities, and many of them serve as food for humans and marine and land species.

The ocean is home to the largest animals in the world, like the blue whale, and tiny creatures like plankton.

Although the oceans provide us a set of useful natural resources, they are also prone to suffer damage: overfishing, pollution, endangered marine species, etc. It is important to take care of the aquatic ecosystems because damaging them can impact and have grave consequences for all living beings on the planet.

Interesting? If so, you can learn details about each ocean and everything about them, with concise information that will take you step by step through aquatic life.

The Pacific is the largest ocean on Earth; its name comes from the explorer Ferdinand Magellan when sailing the mighty winds of the Atlantic, found calm and favorable winds. Thus he named it “Pacific Ocean.”

This enormous mass of water ranges from the Arctic Ocean to the Antarctic or the Southern Ocean, from the Bering Sea in Alaska to the Ross Sea in Antarctica. It meets the Atlantic Ocean through the Bering Strait in the north and the Drake Passage and the Strait of Magellan in the south. It borders Asia and Oceania in the west and the Americas in the east.

The Pacific Ocean is two times bigger than the Atlantic and also contains twice the volume of water.

In simple terms, the Pacific Ocean is two times bigger than the Atlantic and also contains twice the volume of water: 714 million cubic kilometers. It occupies an area of about 161,760,000 square kilometers and includes the Bali Sea, the Bering Sea, the Gulf of Alaska, the Gulf of Tonkin, the Coral Sea, the East China Sea, the Philippine Sea, the Sea of Japan, the South China Sea, and the Tasman Sea.

Its widest point is at a latitude about 5° north, and its deepest point corresponds to the Mariana Trench, which is about 11.3 kilometers deep.

Characteristics of the Pacific Ocean.

The salinity of ocean water is variable and depends on three factors: winds, precipitation, and evaporation. High salinity values are when there are more than 35 parts per thousand or 3.5 percent and low values, less than 3.5 percent. Given this information, the lowest salinity is found in the extreme northern areas of the ocean (3.2 percent) and the highest occurs in the southeast, where the water reaches up to 3.7 percent. When there is more rainfall, the salinity decreases and when the evaporation increases the salt concentration increases too.

Pacific Ocean.

The temperature of the Pacific Ocean is related to the “layer” of water. Each layer has a different temperature; therefore the lower ones are cooler than, the higher ones, obviously. The temperature of the surface layer, which is between 300 and 900 meters, are very different than the temperatures of the deepest layer, which may be near freezing. Average temperatures range between -1.4°C and 30°C, the latter present in areas close to the equator. In general, the North Pacific is warmer than the South Pacific.

In this ocean, there is a lot of volcanic activity and earthquakes because the “Ring of Fire” surrounds it. From May to December is the tropical cyclone season in South Asia, and from June to October is hurricane season in the American continent, in an area ranging from southern North America to northern Central America. The North Pacific surface currents move clockwise while in the South Pacific, they move in the opposite direction.

Economic Importance of the Pacific Ocean.

The Pacific contains significant deposits of oil and gas, and its waters are home to thousands of important edible species in the fishing industry. It is also a source of minerals, sand, and metal for the construction business. In 1996, approximately 60 percent of the fishing was done in the Pacific Ocean, and its oil reserves have an essential role in the energy supply of the countries bordering its waters.
The Pacific’s waters are used to provide transportation services east to west; strategic navigation routes are in Taiwan, Singapore, and the area known as the Torres Strait, located in Oceania.

The Pacific Ocean is shrinking by one centimeter per year as a result of the movement of tectonic plates.

Conservation of the Pacific Ocean.

The Pacific Ocean is shrinking by one centimeter per year as a result of the movement of tectonic plates. In 2000, the International Hydrographic Organization declared the recognition of a fifth ocean, the Antarctic or the Southern Ocean, reducing a part of the South Pacific.

This ocean is subject to one of the most serious pollution incidents in history; in its waters, there is the Garbage Island or the Great Garbage Patch, a sort of territory made up of waste, mostly plastics. The situation is precarious since thousands of animal and plant species live in the area and the environmental risks that this implies.

Pacific waters are home to some species endangered including sea lions, otters, dugongs, seals, turtles, and whales.


Quick Facts:

• If all continents could be placed over the Pacific Ocean, there would still be room to spare.
• It covers one-third of the Earth’s surface (33.1%).
• It’s about 15 times larger than the United States.
• The Great Barrier Reef, located in the Pacific Ocean, is the world’s largest reef.


The wonders of our planet


Earth is a fantastic and most loved planet in the Solar System. It is where we all live and it is the third planet from the Sun. Earth is the fifth largest planet in the Solar System and is the densest of planets also. Earth is of course a terrestrial planet but it is also the biggest of the four terrestrial planets. Most believe this planet to be the World or as many call it, the Blue Planet. It is the place where we all live and it is the World for everyone to live in also.

The planet Earth was apparently formed billions of years ago, almost 4 billion years ago. Earth first showed signs of life within a billion years and the biosphere of the planet changed. This helped to alter the atmosphere of the planet at changed the physical conditions on the planet also; this helped to create organisms and it created the Ozone layer also. The Ozone layer and the magnetic field of the Earth stopped any potential harmful solar radiation from hitting the surface of the Earth.

This helped to allow ocean life, to move on to land without harm. Life has been able to continue to live constantly due to the fact that the orbital system and the geological history.  No one is quite sure how long the Earth will continue to orbit, it could be more than 500 million years or even billions of years; though some say it is the Lord God who will determine how life goes forward.

Understanding The Earth’s Workings

The Earth is divided into tectonic plates which from across the Earth’s surface and have been around and constantly changing for many years, possibly even millions of years.  The Earth is made up of a good portion of salt water oceans – almost 71 percent is made up of water, while the rest of the land, 29 percent is made up from islands and continents.  Though, these continents and islands are going to have different lakes and streams and a lot of different water sources that create a stable feature of the Earth.

The Earth has 2 poles, the North Pole and South Pole but these both are covered mostly with ice; these help to form the Antarctic Ice Sheet as well as the Sea Ice of the Polar Ice packs which are strong and very, very cold.  Though, the Earth does have a strong solid iron inner core with an outer liquid core which helps to create a magnetic field; and the Earth has also a good solid mantle.

Earth facts
The “Blue Marble”

Gravitational Fields and Orbit Rotation

The Earth has of course a gravitational field and these interactions not only occur with humans and terrestrial objects but also objects outside of Earth. It can interact with things from space and when it is orbiting, it can interact with objects such as the Moon and even the Sun. The gravitational pull can be very strong indeed and can at times allow things to be brought towards the Earth’s center.

The Earth orbits the Sun and it creates a 365 solar days as it spins around on its axis 366 times – this creates 1 year.  However, the Earth does only have one natural satellite and that is of course the Moon. The Moon in fact helps to ensure the tides of the oceans continuously move as well as stabilize the axis of the Earth and helps to stop the rotation of the planet from going too fast.

What Can Live On Earth

Earth is home to million of different species. It is not just human beings that are able to live on Earth because there are animals and many more different species, some of which, many do not even know they exist. The human population survives because of the amazing mineral resources that the planet has as well as products from the biosphere but the human population works together to help survive also.

Many of the human population will trade, travel, and use military action to help ensure the world runs smoothly and helps to get food to most humans also. Remember the World is separated into many different states; and there are many different views on Earth and how it works. Many people used to believe that the Earth was flat until one explorer proved it wasn’t. There are just so some people out there who have their own views about how the world or the Earth works.

The Structure of Earth

Since Earth is a terrestrial planet, it means that the surface is a very rocky one.  This means that the surface will be a rocky body form and isn’t a gas form planet like that of Jupiter. Its mass and size is quite large and its density is going to be at its highest also; its surface gravity is going to be at its highest also with the strongest magnetic field of four planets in the Solar System (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars). This is also going to have the fastest rotational system and Earth is the only planet which is going to have tectonic plates which is active.

The interior of the Earth is going to be divided into layers because of their physical properties.  However, the other terrestrial planets are not very distinctive unlike Earth which has a very unique inner and outer core.  The outer layer of the Earth is going to be made up of a distinct silicate and solid crust with a solid mantle.  Though, the crust thickness can vary.

The Earth’s Heat

The Earth can be heated internally from a combination of things including radioactive decay and residual heat from planetary accretion. Though many believe that through Global warming is certainly going to have an impact over how the Earth is heated. The weather will change and it does have a massive effect on Earth.

The blue planet
Artificial satellite over the Earth / Photo Courtesy of NASA

The Tectonic Plates

There are several different tectonic plates in which the Earth sits on including;

  • The Pacific Plate
  • The African Plate
  • North American Plate
  • Eurasian Plate
  • The Antarctic Plate
  • The Indo Australian Plate
  • The South American Plate

These tectonic plates can cause a lot of earthquakes and volcanic activity when moved.  How they sit, the tectonic plates can be moved easily and the slightest of movement can create natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes. However, if the tectonic plates are underneath the oceans, it can eventually cause tsunamis and tidal waves.

The tectonic plates move but they can move slowly and the slowest is the Eurasian Plate. Though, not all movements of the tectonic plates will cause any natural disasters such as earthquakes and tidal waves.  Though, with powerful movements in the tectonic plates, they can create massive and new volcanic forms which can eventually erupt but this might take years and sometimes, they will be dormant and won’t erupt.  Most of the times, these slight changes with the tectonic plates aren’t going to be minor impacting and there will be continuous changes in the Earth’s atmosphere and the surface including with tectonic plates.

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