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Up to 66% of a populace needs invulnerability, through contamination or vaccines, to stop COVID-19.
As the apparatuses of the cutting edge world crush to a close to stop, one inquiry is likely on the brain of many: When will the coronavirus pandemic — and social removing — end? Nobody knows without a doubt, yet it’s most likely no time soon. This is what we do think about when it might be protected to leave our homes and resume typical life.

It will almost certainly take herd immunity to end the pandemic. Most specialists state we’re past the purpose of containing the infection, as we did with SARS and MERS. That implies that COVID-19 is digging in for the long haul, and the pandemic will end just with group invulnerability.

Crowd resistance portrays what extent of a populace must be safe to a sickness for the populace in general to be shielded from flare-ups. The specific edge relies upon the irresistibleness of the sickness, spoke to by the fundamental proliferation number, called R0 (articulated “R nothing”).

At the point when another infection develops, nobody is insusceptible. A profoundly transmissible infection, similar to the coronavirus behind the present pandemic, can fan out quickly, rapidly consuming the dry fuel of an absolutely gullible populace. Yet, when enough individuals are safe, the infection runs into dividers of resistance, and the pandemic diminishes as opposed to seething ahead. Researchers call that the crowd resistance edge.

Viable vaccine

The subsequent situation is viewed as the most likely choice to kill the ailment for good. Researchers are working dangerously fast to create antiviral medications or a vaccine. From mRNA vaccines, which don’t acquaint any infection with the subjects and comprise no popular hazard, to immune response tests to distinguish powerhouses inside to battle the infection, there are many promising advancements.

The issue with this methodology is it is, lamentably, very tedious and costly. It despite everything could be a year or more before such vaccines pass the fundamental security and adequacy tests in clinical preliminaries. Speculation costs for immunization are likewise evaluated to cost as much as $800 million.

Now and again, a surged vaccine that hasn’t experienced the standard convention and stages that require protracted testing on creatures before human preliminaries could wind up making individuals more broken down as opposed to forestalling contaminations.

Studies have recommended that coronavirus vaccines could cause insusceptible improvement, which prompts the vaccinated individual building up a significantly more extreme type of the malady, rather than securing against the contamination. Harmfulness and reactions likewise stay a significant concern.

Social distancing lessens passings however postpones group insusceptibility. The fundamental flipside of effective social separating is that accomplishing group resistance gets deferred as cases decline, says Michael Mina, a disease transmission specialist at Harvard University’s T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston. Regardless of whether all things considered we forestall a flood in the coming weeks, he says, the infection could reappear as soon limitations are lifted. “Without powerful crowd invulnerability at the populace level, we have some danger of a second flood of the pestilence,” Mina says.

Social separating should last 1 to 3 months at least, possibly more. Society could keep a top on such a resurgence by keeping up wide social removing. The Trump organization on March 16 called for noteworthy social separating for at any rate the accompanying 15 days. Be that as it may, most specialists expect such estimates should be set up in the United States for one to a quarter of a year, at least, to shield medical clinics from being overpowered.

We could get a major break if the infection’s spread eases back with hotter climate, however so far there’s no sign that will occur. “That would be an extraordinary fortunate turn of events,” says Maciej Boni, a disease transmission specialist at Penn State University, and may permit more individuals to come back to work once the quantity of new cases starts to fall.

Keeping schools shut and urging individuals to by and large remain at home could smother the pandemic following five months, as per the Imperial College London report. In any case, when such limitations are lifted the infection would, no doubt, return thundering. Until a vaccine opens up, conceivably in 12 to year and a half, the report contends that major, society-wide social separating measures are important.

Be that as it may, such intense changes to day by day life might be hard to support, Boni says. “It resembles you’re keeping down a rush of diseases with Saran Wrap.”

Hotter climate

Quite possibly instances of the coronavirus could wane as the climate warms — however it’s not yet thoroughly clear if spring and summer will stop the flare-up.
“On the off chance that COVID-19 carries on like other respiratory infections, including flu (influenza), it could subside as the climate gets hotter,” Schaffner said.

In any case, it’s too soon to know without a doubt. Researchers are as yet attempting to comprehend the novel infection, which has sickened in excess of 130,000 individuals all inclusive as of March 13.
“We trust that the slow spring will enable this infection to retreat, yet our gem ball isn’t clear. The new coronavirus is a respiratory infection, and we know respiratory infections are frequently regular, yet not generally. For instance, flu (influenza) will in general be occasional in the U.S., yet in different pieces of the world, it exists all year. Researchers don’t completely comprehend why despite the fact that we have been reading [the] influenza for a long time,” he said. “The epic coronavirus was simply found in people in December. It is too soon to know for certain what the effect of hotter climate will be.”

There are at any rate four prior coronaviruses that are regular — yet why precisely remains to some degree covered in puzzle, just like the case for some irresistible illnesses. For example, the 2002-2003 flare-up of SARS, which asserted about 800 lives at that point, finished in the late spring — however a 2004 report on the regularity of SARS didn’t build up an unmistakable purpose behind why that was.
“Our comprehension of the powers driving regular vanishing and repeat of irresistible sicknesses stays fragmentary, in this manner restricting any expectations about whether, or when, SARS will repeat,” the creators composed at that point. “The facts confirm that most settled respiratory pathogens of people repeat in wintertime, however another thankfulness for the high weight of infection in tropical regions fortifies inquiries concerning clarifications laying exclusively on chilly air or low dampness.”

An obscure completion

Situations resemble potential storylines. What occurs in actuality relies upon such huge numbers of variables that it is hard to think of a situation that predicts precisely what occurs. The purpose of thoroughly considering situations is to imagine potential results and what is or isn’t done to arrive at those results.

There’s a great deal of vulnerability in regards to the COVID-19 pandemic. We won’t know whether we rehearsed social separating successfully enough until long after (and still, at the end of the day the specialists will banter about it). We may not know for some time if any current medications can help facilitate the enduring of individuals with the coronavirus or on the off chance that they can forestall disease. What we can do now is attempt to control what number of new cases there are and attempt to not let dread principle our activities and connections.

United States for one to a quarter of a year, at least, to shield medical clinics from being overpowered.
We could get a major break if the infection’s spread eases back with hotter climate, however so far there’s no sign that will occur.

August 21, 2017, will be an important day in the history of the planet because a solar eclipse will shade vast regions of America and marvel those who will have the opportunity to observe it either entirely or partially.

A total solar eclipse is an event that millions of people have never seen and won’t have the chance again in their lifetime because in a particular site of the Earth it can be seen every 360 years.

That is why when people know that this phenomenon is happening soon, the inhabitants of such region plan in advance to observe it.

What does it mean “preparing in advance”?

Take the necessary measures to enjoy it, since it is not the same thing a lunar eclipse than a solar eclipse. The former can be seen safely without any eye protection, but the Sun eclipse should not be observed without protection because it causes irreversible damages to your vision if you do not use the proper eye filters.

It is not even recommended to watch the eclipse when the Moon completely covers the Sun, creating a total darkness on the Earth and only the solar corona is visible. The reason for this is that this stage only has a very short duration and the instant In which the moon changes position and lets the intense light pass through, there is a risk of permanent damage to your sight or even blindness.

Solar eclipse 2017
Protect your eyes from a solar eclipse.

Some think that a quick view will not be harmful, but changes in brightness occur so suddenly that there is no time for the eyes to adjust or look the other way.

In a nutshell, you should NEVER look at the Sun directly during any phase of the eclipse.

The first thing you should have is a solar eclipse visualization device. We are not talking about objects of everyday use that reduce the brightness while driving or are on the beach, like sunglasses, but equipment that has the adequate filters and complies with the safety standards certified for that use.

A secure way to observe a solar eclipse is using special goggles. If you do not get the proper goggles, you can opt for glasses that meet the international safety standards with an ISO 12312-2 certification.

The only important thing is the safety of your eyes. If you have children, taking care of them is paramount. Be sure to protect their vision all the time, and above all, watch them, so they do not remove the protection just for curiosity. If you as a parent do not feel confident that the devices are enough, you can make together with your child an eclipse viewpoint with two pieces of cardboard.

First, you must put one of the pieces on the floor. Then, make a small round punch to the other piece of cardboard. Turn your back to the Sun and lift the cardboard with the hole so that the reflection points to the piece on the floor. The picture will be projected and will be able to see the form of the eclipse safely.

Objects you should not use

You should not use sunglasses as protection. Special glasses are 100,000 times darker than sunglasses and are designed to absorb ultraviolet and infrared radiation that is so damaging to your retina. Avoid telescopes and binoculars as well. These devices are not made to observe the Sun unless they have safe sun filters. Using them will have the effect of the famous experiment when we use a magnifying glass to burn a paper concentrating the sun light but in your eyes.

Something that is not so common but would work fine for this event is the welding masks. However, not all have the protection level to create a security barrier between the Sun and our eyes. You should be sure to get #14; not even #13 will work. Also, check that it is good quality or brand that guarantee that the protection is appropriate.

Recommendations for viewing the solar eclipse.

The best option, however, is the eclipse glasses that are currently easily found at affordable prices. Remember that safety and health are first, so check that they are good quality.

Perhaps seeing an eclipse is awesome for a few seconds, but putting your eyes at risk is not worth it. What happens if we ignore the warnings? It is not a myth that you can get blind. Watching a solar eclipse unprotected can cause partial or total blindness, as intense brightness causes damage to the retina, the part of the eye sensitive to light.

The Sun would be like putting thousands of powerful lights into the retina, which gets burned instantly. The most dangerous thing about it is that the retina does not transmit pain signals to the brain. You might look at the thinking that there is no harm and that the warning you read or heard was a lie, but an instant is too long for such a delicate part of your eyes.

Whether alone, with family or friends, do not miss this wonderful and unique moment that nature gives us, as long as you have the certainty that the objects that you have will protect your health.

 

 

References

https://www.nytimes.com/guides/science/how-to-watch-a-solar-eclipse?em_pos=medium&emc=edit_sc_20170814&nl=science-times&nl_art=5&nlid=79749554&ref=img&te=1

http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/zcytpv4

A solar eclipse is a phenomenon caused by the interposition of the Moon between the Sun and the Earth, dimming the sun light either entirely or partially.

Eclipses are more common than you might think, but at a particular site on Earth, you can see a total solar eclipse only once every 360 years.

Why does a solar eclipse occur?

As you know, the moon, Earth and other planets and satellites spin around their axis and at the same time orbit around the Sun. The duration of the orbits varies according to the distance from the sun, so at different times of the year, the planets are in different positions.

Solar eclipses occur only if the moon is in the new moon phase.
When the moon is in the new moon phase, it is orbiting very close to the Sun from a perspective seen from Earth, and that is when a solar eclipse can happen. Strictly speaking, solar eclipses occur only if the moon is in the new moon phase, but this obviously does not mean that they can happen every month. Sun and moon eclipses would occur every month only if the moon rotated in the same plane in which the Earth does around the Sun, called the ecliptic plane.

Another important issue is that the moon is at a distance from earth that is similar in size to the sun, so it can perfectly cover the sun when it passes in front of it in the case of total eclipses.

Each year there are between 2 and five eclipses, and every 100 years occur about 240.

Characteristics of a solar eclipse

On average, a total solar eclipse occurs every 18 months and lasts no more than a few seconds or minutes. Each year there are between 2 and five eclipses, and every 100 years occur about 240. However, there are no more than two total eclipses every year.

In a solar eclipse, the umbra is the shadow projected on the Earth and produced by the moon when it completely blocks the light from the Sun; therefore the people on such area see a total eclipse. In contrast, a softer shadow product of a partially covered sun is the penumbra; evidently, people that experience the penumbra see a partial eclipse.

What are the types of solar eclipses?

There are four types:

Total eclipse.
It is only visible from a small area of ​​the Earth where the moon completely covers the Sun. People in the center of the moon’s shadow are the ones who can see a total solar eclipse since the umbra passes in that area of ​​the earth’s surface.

During this type of eclipse, you can observe the chromosphere, which is the outermost zone of the Sun, along with the solar corona and other protrusions.

Annular eclipse.
This kind of phenomenon happens when it is only possible to observe a small section of light in the form of a ring from the disk of the Sun since the Sun and the Moon are aligned, but the size of the latter is smaller than the apparent dimension of the Sun seen from the Earth.

types of solar eclipses.

Partial eclipse.
In this type of eclipse, only a part of the Sun’s disk is visible, so the crown and the chromosphere can not be seen. The shadow of the Moon passes through an area of ​​the earth’s surface, and it is called the penumbra; therefore, a person located in this area observes a partial eclipse.

Hybrid eclipse.
A hybrid eclipse is the fourth type, but it is very unusual. It happens when the eclipse is total in some regions of the terrestrial surface, while in others it is seen like annular eclipse.

IMPORTANT! You should not observe the solar eclipse directly with your eyes; A special filter must be used to protect your eyes. Otherwise, you risk damaging your retina irreversible to the point of losing your sight.

Eclipses in culture

Despite not affecting humans, solar eclipses were associated with bad omens and mythological events by some ancient cultures. For example, the Vikings believed that during eclipses wolves pursued the sun or the moon and managed to catch them. This belief of beings who ate the sun or the moon was common in many ancient cultures so that people used to bang objects hard enough to make a sharp noise that would frighten the evil creature.

One of the myths that still survive in some parts of the world is that these eclipses can be dangerous for pregnant women and their unborn children, but this belief has no scientific basis. However, it is important to remark that you should not watch the solar eclipse directly with your eyes without a proper filter to avoid eye damage.

What is climate?

The climate is a concept used by most people, but its definition is not always well known. In simple terms, the climate is the average weather conditions of an area during a long time, which are the result of several factors present in that zone. The climate varies from one region to another but must follow a fairly consistent pattern.

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the climate is the statistical description of the mean and variability of the weather over a span of time ranging from months to thousands or even millions of years. All this means, the average weather during a long time.

The UK Meteorological Office’s glossary mentions that the climate of a locality is the synthesis of the values of the day-to-day weather elements affecting that place. The word climate comes from the Greek word “klima” which means “area.”

The climate factors measured are rainfall, maximum, and minimum temperatures during a season, humidity, sunshine time, and so on.

What factors influence climate?

Latitude, altitude, topography, water bodies and other factors determine the climate of a geographic region. The angle of the sun’s rays, for example, affects how warm the environment is. People living in the tropics knows that certain days of the year the sun is positioned directly above his head at noon, causing a hot climate with small temperature changes between summer and winter.

The UK Meteorological Office lists the following influence factors of the climate of a zone: altitude, prevailing wind, distance from the sea, oceanic currents, topography, vegetation, and type of area (urban or rural).

What are the elements of climate?

Various elements make up the climate of a region, but the following are the most common:

Temperature
.
Temperature is the amount of heat energy that is in the air. Its measure unit is Celsius degrees or Fahrenheit degrees in some countries. Heat is the energy radiated from the Sun to the Earth in the form of light. Clouds, water vapor, and atmospheric dust deflect about half of the solar energy back into space, while the rest is absorbed by the soil and water and becomes heat.

The temperature is characterized by its variation during a day due to Earth’s rotation and during the annual seasons due to the translational motion of the Earth around the sun.

Precipitation.
It is a process that ends with the fall of water, in liquid or solid form, to the earth’s surface. A large percentage of rainfall drains into lakes and rivers while the rest evaporates from the earth’s surface or passes through plants. The latter process is known as evapotranspiration and is part of the water cycle.

Humidity
.
It is the water vapor contained in the air. Its amount varies according to to the amount of rainfall and solar radiation in a zone. 
Water vapor is present in any region of the world, even the hottest ones. As the temperature increases, so does the possibility of having water vapor.

What are the elements of climate?

Atmospheric pressure.
It is the force exerted on a given surface due to the weight of the atmosphere. It varies vertically; the values decrease as you ascend in altitude.

Cloudiness.

The number of clouds in the atmosphere is also an element of climate. Clouds form when humid air cools down to its dew point, and water droplets or ice attach to small particles of dust, ash, or other contaminants.

Wind.

The Wind is the moving air. It causes variations in climate by drying humidity, causing storms, and contributing to water evaporation.

Solar radiation.

Although it is an unseen element, it significantly impacts climate by providing heat. The amount of sunlight the ground receives is called insolation.

Quick Facts.

Estimations determine that the average surface air temperature will increase between 1.4°C and 5.8°C by 2100.

Rainfall and water vapor are also expected to increase along with this warming.

You are probably already aware that water covers about 97 percent of the entire planet, right? Then maybe you’re familiar with the concept of the water cycle, a necessary process for life on Earth. However, you should know that the water cycle is more complicated than you think, and there are 15 components or elements in the process.

Water is never still. We’re not just talking about currents or tides, but also changes in their physical state: gaseous, liquid, and solid. The hydrological process is the process in which water moves in, on, and under the surface of the Earth, over and over again. Although it sounds simple, it forms the basis of the existence of living beings, as they use it for drinking and therefore, survival.

The Process of the Water Cycle.

We can’t say when and were the hydrological cycle begins because it never stops. However, you can take the oceans as a starting point for understanding the process.

Although usually a smaller number of steps are mentioned, there are about 15 steps or components in the water cycle:

1. Water stored in the oceans.

Most of the world’s water is in the oceans and a small percentage in glaciers and smaller bodies of water: rivers, lakes, ponds, etc. Oceans are therefore a kind of warehouse for a large quantity of the vital liquid and supply nearly 90% of the evaporate water that is part of the water cycle.

2. Evaporation.

It is a process that converts liquid water into gas or vapor, mainly due to solar radiation. This energy from the sun is essential for water to evaporate, which happens when it reaches 100°C, its boiling point.

At this stage, evaporated water joins with the transpiration of plants, so together the process is often referred to as evapotranspiration. Oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes provide nearly 90% of the moisture that evaporates, while plants provide the other 10%. In concrete terms, this state is characterized by the transformation of water into steam in the air.

The hydrological process is the process in which water moves in, on, and under the surface of the Earth, over and over again.

3. Water in the atmosphere.

At this point, the water in vapor form is contained in the atmosphere. The amount of water is still small. Imagine, if all the water in this layer of gas fell to Earth as rain, it would cover the ground with only 2.5 centimeters of water.

4. Condensation.

Water vapor in the atmosphere becomes drops of liquid water. This process creates clouds and fog, and it is the opposite of evaporation.
How does this happen? Well, the water molecules combine with dust, salt, and smoke and form tiny drops that grow and join to develop clouds; this only occurs at high altitude where there is cooler air which allows this process.

5. Precipitation.

The condensed water vapor falls to Earth’s surface as rain, snow, hail, sleet, fog drip, and snow pellets but most of the water from the clouds returns in the form of rain. All these kinds of precipitation happen due to the collision of the particles in water vapor clouds; it takes millions of cloud droplets to produce one raindrop.

6. Water stored in ice and snow.

The water cycle is not exactly a progression because some processes occur at the same time as others. Thus, the water stored in glaciers, ice fields, and snow plays a significant role in the cycle.

7. Meltwater flows into water bodies.

Frozen water flow contributes to the change and flow of rivers, creating movement and sometimes even natural disasters. However, it is a vital component of the water cycle.

8. Surface runoff.

The ground absorbs a portion of the rainwater and other precipitations. The interaction between precipitation and runoff varies according to time and geography, and can be diverted by human means according to need.

The hydrological process.
The process of the water cycle.

9. Streamflow.

The amount of water flowing in a river, stream, or creek. After rain falls, most of the water runs downhill over land in these bodies of water.

10. Stored freshwater.

Naturally, the water that ran into rivers, streams, and creeks remains in these natural “deposits” on the Earth’s surface.

Stored freshwater is vital for the survival of living organisms since physiologically, they are incapable of drinking salt water. Moreover, the amount of water in rivers and lakes is constantly changing.

11. Infiltration.

A small part of the precipitation water infiltrates the soil and rock materials. While some water remains in the most shallow layer, the rest infiltrates deeper and can replenish groundwater.

12. Groundwater discharge.

Some groundwater discharges into streams of surface water.

13. Springs.

Springs are common water bodies where groundwater flows to the surface.

14. Perspiration.

After discharge and storage, water can evaporate again through plants and re- enter the atmosphere.

15. Stored groundwater.

Water stored underground moves slowly. These aquifers are useful, last a long time, and make up a deposit that is part of the water cycle.

What is a monsoon? This word comes from the Arabic word “mausim” (or Mausam) that means “season” and commonly refers to the reversing of winds in the ocean located between the Arabian Sea and India that changes the precipitation pattern of the zone.

Broadly speaking, monsoons are significant variations in the direction of the strongest winds of a region, during a season. Thus, they are responsible for seasonal changes and torrential rains in areas with hot and humid climates, like South and Southeast Asia, but they can also happen in other parts of the world like Australia, West Africa, and even America.

A broader definition describes a thermal effect caused by heat differences between large landmasses and seas. In the tropics, monsoons bring moisture and the seasons become dryer, but as there are various monsoon systems on the planet, the seasons they cause vary. For example, in northern Australia, monsoon season extends from December to March, while in parts of India and Southeast Asia, summer monsoons and winter monsoons significantly influence the climate in the region.

Monsoons are the result of temperature differences between land and sea because the heat from solar radiation.

Causes of Monsoons
.

Monsoons are the result of temperature differences between land and sea because the heat from solar radiation. It happens because the land and the ocean waters absorb heat differently. During the hot season, the surface of the land warms faster than water, a difference that causes a low-pressure area over land and higher pressure at sea.

In all cases, winds blow from the sea toward warm areas, which get loaded with moisture, and this, is what causes abundant and frequent rains because this moist air rises and returns to the sea but while being on the Earth’s surface it cools and reduces its capacity to retain water.

Effects of monsoons.
Monsoon in Ratangad, India.

We can identify three mechanisms that cause monsoons:


1. Heat and the cooling differential between land and water.

2. Wind deflection. This phenomenon is a result of the Coriolis effect, which is due to Earth’s rotation, causing winds in the Northern Hemisphere to deflect to the right, and winds in the Southern Hemisphere to diverge to the left.

3. Heat exchange, or energy exchange that occurs as water changes from liquid to gas or gas to liquid.

Asian monsoons are the most popular. In the south, monsoon season runs from April to September. Note that in this particular part of the planet, solar radiation hits vertically during the summer so hot air rises and creates an area of low pressure over Central Asia. Meanwhile, the water in the Indian Ocean is relatively cold, creating a high-pressure area.

Such temperature difference causes the air from the ocean to move toward South and Southeast Asia because the wind moves from an area of high pressure toward an area of low pressure. Then during autumn, water and land begin to cool, but the latter loses heat faster than the ocean, so during winter, the Indian Ocean becomes a low-pressure area.

In Australia, the monsoon season arrives when the wind gets loaded with moisture from the Indian Ocean, moving toward the north of the country. Additionally, America is hit once a year by the summer monsoon. It happens the same time that the Asian monsoon, but in a different region: the temperature difference occurs between the land and the Pacific Ocean and it usually affects parts of Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, California, and western Texas.

Torrential rains can have adverse effects such as flooding and landslides.

Effects.

The straight effect of the monsoons is the abundance and intensity of precipitation. Torrential rains can have adverse effects such as flooding and landslides that often cause destruction in urban and rural areas, and sometimes death of people in that region.

However, rains have a positive side as well, as some economic activities depend on monsoon season in South and Southeast Asia. For example, many farmers rely on monsoon rains for growing rice, tea, and other important produces, and aquifers replenish guaranteeing fresh water supplies for all living beings in the area, including humans.

The Antarctic Ocean, or the Southern Ocean, is the last ocean to be designated as such. Indeed, not all countries and researchers recognize it even though the U.S. Board on Geographic Names and the International Hydrographic Organization recognizes it already. Its limits were defined by this organization in 2000 but need confirmation from most oceanic agencies and administrations.

It differs from the other oceans as it is the only one that surrounds a continent. It comprises the waters located in the southern hemisphere, whose boundaries are the Antarctic Convergence or latitude 60° south and the Antarctica coast. It covers all the 360° of longitude. It connects the principal southern oceanic basins as well as the sea surface with deeper layers of water.

The Antarctic Ocean, has an area of about 21.96 million square kilometers and includes:

– the Weddell Sea,
– the Lazarev Sea,
– the Riiser-Larsen Sea,
– the Amundsen Sea,
– the Cosmonauts Sea,
– the Cooperation Sea,
– the Davis Sea,
– the Bransfield Strait,
– part of the Drake Passage,
– the D’Urville Sea,
– the Somov Sea,
– part of the Scotia Sea, and
– the Ross Sea.

This ocean has the largest ocean current, called the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

Properties of the Antarctic Ocean.

This ocean has the largest ocean current, called the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and since it connects the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean basins, it influences the climate of the entire planet. It takes 135-145 million cubic meters of water per second from west to east along 20,000 Antarctic kilometers at a speed of 0.5 meters per second. This current distributes heat and influences rainfall patterns and temperatures.

Properties of the Antarctic Ocean.
Antarctic Ocean.

It has an average depth of 4000-5000 meters and touches around 17,968 kilometers of Antarctic coastline. A continental shelf about 260 kilometers wide and a maximum of 2600 kilometers lies beneath this ocean. 
Its temperature ranges between 10°C and -2 °C, but it has the strongest winds and waves in the world, as the temperature of the ice contrasts the open ocean. During winter, the sea freezes at a latitude 65° south at the Pacific and a latitude 55° south in the Atlantic Ocean sector. During winter most coastal waters are frozen except in some areas.

Salinity is lower in the north, near the Antarctic Convergence where the colder waters flow below, the less cold waters of the Antarctic convergence. This ocean is a huge deposit of carbon and contains about 50 times more than the atmosphere.

Economic Importance of the Southern Ocean.

Due to the low levels of iron and sunlight, productivity is not high. It is rich in nutrients and manganese nodules as well as possible oil and natural gas deposits. It is also home to over 10,000 species, all perfectly adapted to the weather conditions, such as penguins, squids, whales, seals, krill, and a variety of fish.

Fishing is relatively fruitful, being krill and hake the most caught species. Between 2006-2007 for example, 126,976 metric tons of these species were captured.

Illegal fishing affects the sustainability of the sea and reduces the availability of food for other species.

In the Antarctic territory, there are two seaports: McMurdo and Palmer. Offshore, there are a few anchor points. Not all the waters of this ocean are navigable due to the presence of ice blocks. Only a few research boats cross the latitude 60° South since neither private nor commercial navigation is allowed.

Conservation of the Antarctic Ocean.

The increase of ultraviolet radiation, as a result of the ozone hole, is a major concern. The ice whiteness reflects the heat and bounces it back into space, which increases the cold. Some experts think that ultraviolet radiation is responsible for the reduction of phytoplankton, the primary link in the food chain. Besides, illegal fishing affects the sustainability of the sea and reduces the availability of food for other species.

Some organizations implemented guidelines to diminish the abuse of its natural resources. For example, the International Whaling Commission prohibits whaling below latitude 40° South.

Quick facts:

• It covers 20 percent of the surface of all oceans and 4.3 percent of the face of the earth.
• Its narrowest part is the Drake Passage, which has only about 1000 kilometers wide between South 
America and Antarctica.
• It’s the fourth largest ocean.
• The maximum depth corresponds to the South Sandwich Trench, which is 7,235 meters deep.
• The Antarctic Circumpolar Current carries 150 times more water than the flow of all the rivers 
in the world.

Ocean, the source of life.

The Ocean is an immense body of water that covers more than 70 percent of planet Earth, and it is possibly the home of the first living organisms. The ocean is a unique, full of natural resources, resplendent beauty, strange and ordinary life, and valuable resources.

Ocean is the name given to a body of saline water larger in size than a sea. The world’s ocean contains about 1.35 billion cubic kilometers of water and represents about 97 percent of all the water on Earth, although more than 95 percent of what exists underwater is still unexplored and a mystery to us.

Oceans
Arctic ocean
Pacific ocean
Atlantic ocean
Indian ocean
Antarctic ocean

For research, study, and investigation, the ocean is split into five parts that most people know: the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, and the Antarctic Ocean. Historically, the first four have been mapped and recognized by most countries, but now the Antarctic is gaining more international recognition. The Indian, Pacific and Atlantic oceans are called “the three great oceans” and their navigation and exploration date back to the early civilizations.

Characteristics of the oceans.

After Earth’s formation, around 4.5-4.6 billion years ago, lighter rocks rose to form Earth’s crust while heavier ones sank and settled to form the mantle and core of the planet. While the molten rock cooled, the water vapor inside was expelled along with other gasses; at some point, the steam condensed and formed an ocean, which over the years became the one that touches the shores today.

Although there are many theories about the beginning of life, most scientists agree that the ocean hosted the initial forms of life, which were the ancestors of all life that now exist, including humans. One of the most considered hypotheses indicates that living organisms originated near a hydrothermal vent in the ocean, given the chemical and energy characteristics that exist there. Many marine species are considered primitive or “living fossils” because they have not evolved much over thousands or millions of years and greatly resemble species that lived in ancient times.

Ocean resources.

Even today there may be species with ancient origins. Marine life is vast, diverse, and surprising. Many biologists believe that between 500 thousand to five million marine species are not discovered yet, and less than five percent of the ocean has been explored.

Each ocean has own temperatures, salinity, and specific natural resources, but all of them have seamounts, ridges, animal and plant species, minerals, and other resources. The ocean is home to the largest animals in the world, like the blue whale, and tiny creatures like plankton and krill. Fish exist in vast quantities, and many of them serve as food for humans and marine and land species.

The ocean is home to the largest animals in the world, like the blue whale, and tiny creatures like plankton.

Although the oceans provide us a set of useful natural resources, they are also prone to suffer damage: overfishing, pollution, endangered marine species, etc. It is important to take care of the aquatic ecosystems because damaging them can impact and have grave consequences for all living beings on the planet.

Interesting? If so, you can learn details about each ocean and everything about them, with concise information that will take you step by step through aquatic life.

If you had to pick an ocean to swim, you would not pick the Arctic, right? That’s because it’s the coldest ocean on Earth, and only the species adapted to its temperature are capable of living there.
 This body of water is the smallest and shallowest of the oceans, and it is in the northern hemisphere. Still, it is 1.5 times larger than the United States. The world “Arctic” comes from the name of the constellation Arktos, which in Greek means “bear.”

Regardless its unbearable cold temperatures, this territory has been inhabited for about 20,000 years by the Inuit and the Yupik, who have physical and physiological adaptations to living in these extreme conditions.

This ocean has an area of approximately 15,558,000 square kilometers and a total of 45,389 kilometers of coastline. It covers about 3.17 percent of Earth’s surface. Its waters touch the northern regions of Alaska, Canada, Norway, Iceland, Russia, and Greenland, and it surrounds several islands. Its area includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, the Beaufort Sea, the Chukchi Sea, the Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, the Kara Sea, the Laptev Sea, the White Sea, Hudson Strait, the Siberia Sea and others. It connects to the Pacific Ocean through the Bering Strait and the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea and the Labrador Sea. Its southern boundary is the Arctic Circle, at parallel 66°33′ north.

In the Arctic, massive ice sheets of two or three meters thick float around freely, continually shifting due to winds and ocean currents. If these ice chunks collide, they form irregular lines of ice, known as pressure ridges, which can be three times as thick as the individual pieces.

In winter, the temperature fluctuates between -50°C and -1.1°C.

Properties of the Arctic Ocean.

During the summer, the ice caps are surrounded by the ocean, but in the winter they double in size. The Arctic climate is described as polar, characterized by a perennial cold. The islands have a permafrost layer, in other words, a layer of ice on the soil’s surface. Other land regions like Alaska have a tundra biome.

In the winter, the sun is conspicuously absent, the sky is clear, and weather conditions are stable, but summer has permanent sun and humid environments, occasionally pounded by cyclones and snowstorms. In winter, the temperature fluctuates between -50°C and -1.1°C and in summer, the temperature can be up to 10°C. This ocean has the lowest salinity of any ocean due to low evaporation rates and freshwater inflows.

Properties of the Arctic Ocean

The ocean floor has three main underwater ridges:


1. The Nansen-Gakkel ridge, which extends north of western Russia
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2. The Alfa mountain ridge, a plane range with peaks of about 3,000 meters.

3. The Lomonosov Ridge, a mountain range between 3,000 to 3,700 meters high.

It is also divided into three large bodies of water, depending on the depth:

1. Arctic Deep Water, the deepest part, beginning at about 900 meters below the surface

2. Atlantic Water, found between 150-900 meters deep and having the same level of salinity as the Arctic Deep Water but warmer.

3. Arctic Surface Water, above 150-200 meters deep and is a subsurface layer with swift currents.

Economic Importance of the Arctic Ocean
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The cold conditions do not deter the proliferation of several species there. Narwhals, walruses, belugas, seals, bowhead whales, and Lion’s Mane Jellyfishes, which grow up 2.4 meters long, inhabit the waters of this ocean. Plankton, algae, various fish species, and polar bears also live in this environment.

In the ground, there are vast deposits of oil, natural gas, and metals, which are essential resources for various countries. Its waters are navigable taking the proper care to avoid icebergs; between March and April, ice covers a large part of the ocean. This challenge has become more important as some tests indicate that it could hold more than 25 percent of the undiscovered deposits of oil and gas.

This ocean is also a maritime link between the east and western Russia and North America. However, the center of this ocean is disputed between Norway, Denmark, United States, Canada, and Russia.

Economic Importance of the Arctic Ocean.

Conservation of the Arctic Ocean.

This ocean is evidently affected by climate change as due to the rising of global temperatures, the ice layer gradually thins. The thaw could cause serious flooding in the future, burying some countries under water, pollute some territories because its high concentration of radioactive contaminants, and alter the direction of ocean currents which could cause severe weather disruptions.

Along with the above, animal species would also be affected. Some researchers think that by the year 2040, the Arctic could be entirely melted because the ice pack of this ocean shrinks by eight percent each year.

 

Quick Facts.

– It is the smallest ocean.
– The Arctic Ocean is the only home of polar bears.
– Its deepest point is the Fram Basin, which has a depth of 4,665 meters.
– It is five times larger than the Mediterranean Sea.
– During summer, its ice shrinks by 50 percent.

The Atlantic Ocean is a huge mass of water covering about 16.7 percent of the Earth and a total area of approximately 85,133,000 square kilometers. To have an idea of its size, it is slightly larger than half of the Pacific Ocean.

This ocean has an average depth of 3,339 meters with adjacent seas, and its volume is 354,700,000 cubic kilometers. Milwaukee Deep is the deepest area, with 8,380 meters.

Its boundaries are the Arctic Ocean in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern or Antarctic Ocean in the south. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Greenland Sea, the Denmark Strait, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. Regarding land, it reaches the shores of America in the west and Europe and Africa in the east. The Atlantic Ocean includes the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Norwegian Sea.

The Atlantic is the saltiest ocean in the world.

The northernmost waters sink because they are colder, denser, and saltier than normal due to being cooled by Arctic currents; this creates what is known as “thermohaline circulation” or the “ocean conveyor belt.”

The name Atlantic comes from Atlas, a character from Greek mythology known for holding up the sky on his shoulders.

Properties of the Atlantic Ocean.
Waters of Atlantic Ocean.

Properties of the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic is the saltiest ocean in the world; however, the surface salinity varies with latitude and season. Thus, the saltier waters are at a range of latitude from 25° north to 25° south and in tropical areas of low rainfall and high evaporation. The lowest levels of salinity occur north of the equator.

Temperatures can vary depending on the latitude and the season, but they are about -2 °C. Again, north of the equator, the warmest temperatures are registered while the coldest are in the Polar Regions. Between August and November, hurricanes are common, tending to develop along the coasts of Africa and moving westward into the Caribbean Sea.

The ocean floor is relatively flat but has abyssal plains, ridges, depressions, plateaus, and canyons. In the Labrador Sea, the Denmark Strait, and the coast of the Baltic Sea, the water is usually covered with lots of ice packs between October and June.

Economic Importance of the Atlantic Ocean.

The Atlantic Ocean is the main communication link between Europe and America and has been sailed for many centuries. It has a considerable vessel traffic. At the same time, it has significant oil and natural gas deposits in the sedimentary rocks of the continental shelves, especially in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the North Sea.

The Atlantic is exploited for fisheries, sand, gravel, poly-metallic nodules, and gemstones.

Besides oil and gas, the Atlantic is exploited for fisheries, sand, gravel, poly-metallic nodules, and gemstones. Fishing is plentiful, and the most important fishes are cod, hake, herring, and mackerel.

Conservation of the Atlantic Ocean.

Oil spills pollute the Atlantic Ocean; water drain with toxic substances, and garbage. Some international treaties are concerned about this and have joined forces to reduce the effects. However, many animal species are already endangered such as the manatee, some whales and turtles, sea lions, and seals.

 

Quick Facts:

• It’s the world’s second largest ocean.
• Among the five oceans, it is probably the last formed on Earth.
• The Ancient Greeks believed that it was an enormous river encircling the world.
• Sometimes, it is called “black Atlantic” for the role it served in the history of dark-skinned 
people, who often traveled from Africa to America by sea.
• In 2013, a crack in the earth’s crust was discovered, it marks the future 
union of the American and European continents and the disappearance of this ocean in about 220 million years.